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Many efforts have been focused on identification of resistance sources by screening wild tomato species. In many cases, the accession numbers were either not provided in publications or not provided in a consistent manner, which led to redundant screenings. In the current study, we summarized efforts on the screenings of wild tomato species for TYLCV resistance from various publications. In addition, we screened accessions from 13 wild tomato species using different inoculation assays i.
These symptomless accessions include 14 accessions from S. Most of the screened S. Many symptomless accessions were also identified in S. A large number of S.
Taken together, we present a comprehensive overview on TYLCV resistance and susceptibility in wild tomato germplasm, and demonstrate how to study allelic variants of the cloned Ty -genes in TYLCV-resistant accessions. Invasive Species Compendium 1. Among the countries for which B. Invasive Species Compendium 2 ]. Domesticated tomato is known to be vulnerable to TYLCV infection, but resistance exists in wild tomato species Ji et al.
Ty-1 and Ty-3 originate from S. Ty-2originating from S. The mutation in ty-5 is caused by a T-to-G transversion in the coding region, which occured in cultivated tomato Lapidot et al.
However, it has also been suggested that ty-5 is derived from a complex of S.
In addition to these cloned genes, two resistance loci Ty-4 and Ty-6 have been mapped. Ty-4 is identified from S. Ty-6 is the most recently identified TYLCV resistance locus on the long arm of chromosome 10, presumably originating from S.
Up till now, introgressions of Ty-1Ty-2and Ty-3 into cultivated tomato have been the major focus in breeding programs.
Resistance breakage facilitates TYLCD epidemics, which urges la41225 breeders to continuously search for effective novel sources of resistance in the wild tomato gene pool. In multiple research programs wild tomato germplasm has been screened in order to identify accessions that can be utilized as sources of TYLCV resistance. Although these efforts have resulted in the identification of a number of sources exhibiting no TYLCD symptoms, the accession numbers of these sources were not consistently provided in publications, which led to redundant screenings in some cases.
In this article, we summarize the results of previous resistance screening efforts and the use of different resistance resources in tomato introgression breeding. In addition, we report the identification of tomato accessions that were TYLCD symptomless in lx4125 large-scale screening of accessions from 13 wild tomato species. Finally, we discuss the potential use of the lq4125 identified resources for TYLCV resistance in tomato breeding, in the context of donor species, the dataxheet Ty genes and viral titer levels.
The tomato cultivar S. Moneymaker MM was included as susceptible control. Seeds were germinated in petri-dishes on moist sterilized filter paper. Germinated seedlings were transferred to pots and placed into a plastic tunnel greenhouse. After transplanting, plants were continuously exposed to natural infection of whiteflies by opening the tunnel ventilation.
Experimental design was a randomized complete block design with two blocks and one to eight plants per plot depending on the number of available datasheeet seedlings. MM was included as susceptible control and used in each block five plants per block. An dataheet line, TO derived from S.
The lla4125 has been described in detail by Verlaan et al. TYLCV Agro-inoculation was performed on plants at approximately three true leaves stage around 21 days after sowing as described by Verlaan et al. For most of the tested wild species, four plants per accession were inoculated and two plants were mock-inoculated. In China, plant responses were evaluated three times at 8, 10, and 12 weeks after sowing for TYLCD symptom development.
On each date, each plant was rated using a 0 to 4 disease severity index DSI described by Friedmann et al. The final disease score of each accession was taken into account and the value was presented as mean of all the tested individuals. Only accessions that remained asymptomatic throughout the whole evaluation period la4152 been regarded as resistant genotypes.
At Wageningen, plants were scored for symptom development at 25, 35, 45, and 55 days after virus inoculation. Symptom severity was scored using the same scale as described above. Final results were the disease scores of the last evaluation at 55 days post inoculation.
The species that were represented in this screen included S. These accessions were subjected to a field screening with natural whitefly infection. To eliminate phenotypic variations and to assess uniformity of the infection across the trial, the susceptible control S. MM plants were placed randomly at different positions within the experimental block. Meanwhile, an inbred line, TO derived from S.
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TO has the introgression of type IV leaf glandular trichomes which limits whitefly B. The wild accessions screened in the present study showed a range of phenotypic reactions to TYLCD infection. For simplicity, phenotypic responses to TYLCD were initially categorized into two groups, symptomless and symptomatic.
From species of S. Of these three species, symptomatic accessions demonstrated mild to moderate levels of symptoms and severe symptoms were observed only in accessions LA S. Stack bar graph depicting percentage of accessions for each Solanum spp. Taxonomy of wild tomato relatives follow the classification system as presented in Peralta et al.
In contrast, the majority of S. Particularly, all the S. Significant plant-to-plant variation in phenotypic responses was observed within several accessions of tomato wild species, including S.
This variation may be due to actual segregation of resistance alleles resulting from the heterogeneous nature of these out-crossing species Peralta and Spooner, ; Moyle, Alternatively, it may also be due to the presence of escapes, since this test was conducted using natural infection in the field.
At Wageningen, 11 different wild tomato species including one S. This screening panel included 32 accessions of the following species, S. Plants of the S. Wild tomato accessions have been tested in China and Netherlands using natural whitefly infection and agroinoculation, respectively. While, plants of S.
Disease severity index of TYLCD infection in wild tomato species after artificial Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation and field infection with whitefly. Also, contrasting results of dataseet same accession were observed. In contrast, symptomatic accessions in the field test, such as S.
Among the accessions that were heterogenic in response to whitefly natural infection, we tested three accessions from S. To verify whether the S. These accessions were selected because relatively more seeds were available. An advanced breeding line harboring the Ty-1 gene named hereafter as the Ty-1 line was included as a positive control.
All five plants of S. Relative quantification of virus accumulation by qPCR in S. For each accession, tested individuals infiltrated with silencing construct were grouped according to their phenotypic responses; R, resistant, S, compromised resistance.
Error bars represent standard deviation of biological replicates. Virus titer was converted into logarithmic scale log10 displayed on the vertical axis.
Further, the protein sequences obtained by in silico translating the amplified coding sequences were aligned Supplementary Figure S3. Four allele-specific amino acids aa were observed to be unique and not present in other RDR alleles identified before.
Among accessions tested, highly and moderately resistant accessions were found in S. All the resistant accessions identified in S. These intensive screenings resulted in identification of many accessions being resistant to both TYLCV species from S.
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The highest levels of resistance were found among S. High variability was found among S. Intermediate level of resistance was found in S. In addition to the above mentioned large scale tests carried out at COMAV, we summarized resistant and susceptible accessions in previously published resources Supplementary Table S5. Worldwide efforts on identification of promising resistance sources against TYLCV viral complex have resulted in various resistant accessions corresponding to S.
Resistant accessions identified up till now from previous publications were mainly from wild species S. All the identified S. Resistant accessions from S. Currently, Ty-1Ty-2and Ty-3 are the primary resistance genes widely used in tomato breeding programs reported in literature.
The Ty-4 resistance locus confers only a low level of resistance, while the ty-5 gene is recessive in nature; therefore, the utilization of these genes in tomato breeding programs is restricted Ji et al. Ty-6 is an incompletely dominant resistance locus that was more recently identified Hutton and Scott, Little is known about Ty-6 or the extent to which it is utilized commercially.
Ty-1Ty-3Ty-4and reportedly Ty-6 all originated from various S. In some cases, a single S. Resistance in commercial breeding materials can likewise be mediated by a single resistance gene or a joint response of different genes.